APC RESISTANCE UNIVERSITY
Potential misdiagnosis of factor V Leiden: A comparison of two genotyping techniques. Letter to the Editor. Cumming AM, Thromb Haemost 77, 1215-24 (1997). Ref 9789
Hereditary resistance to activated protein C: An uncommon risk factor for thromboembolic disease in lupus patients with antiphospholipid antibodies. EH Sasso, Arthritis and Rheumatism, 1997, Vol 40, Iss 9, pp 1720-1721.PubMed Abstract
Factor V and protein S as cofactors to activated protein C. Dahlbäck B. Haematologica 82, 91-95 (1997). A recent review on the protein C pathway.
Factor V genetic component differing from factor V R506Q contributes to the activated protein C resistance phenotype. F Bernardi et al. Blood 90, 1552-1557 /1997). Ref 97157. A specific FV gene haplotype, defined by six polymorphisms, is related to a lower APC response. PubMed Abstract Full Text Article
Activated Protein C resistance – A major risk factor for thrombosis. Rosén S Eur J Clin Chem Clin Biochem 35, 501-516 (1997). Ref 97101. A review article covering the important aspects within the area of APC resistance.
The effect of delayed analysis or freeze-thawing on the measurement of natural anticoagulants, resistance to activated protein C and markers of activation of the haemostatic system. Luddington R et al. Thromb.Res.Vol.87. No.6 pp.577-581,1997
References from the APC Resistance Monograph
1. Hirsh J. Venous Thromboembolism. In: Hoffman R et al (eds) Hematology, Basic Principles and Practice. Churchill Livingstone, 1465-1484 (1991).
2. Goldhaber SZ. Epidemiology of pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis. In: Tuddenham EGD, Bloom AL, Forbes CD, Thomas DP (eds) Haemostasis and Thrombosis. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 1327-1333 (1994).
3. Thomas DP. Pathogenesis of venous thrombosis. In: Tuddenham EGD, Bloom AL, Forbes CD, Thomas DP (eds) Haemostasis and Thrombosis. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 1335- 1347 (1994).
4. Heijboer H, Brandjes D, Büller HR et al. Deficiencies of coagulation-inhibiting and fibrinolytic proteins in outpatients with deep-vein-thrombosis. New Eng J Med 323, 1512-1516 (1991).
5. Malm J, Laurell M, Nilsson IM, Dahlbäck B. Thromboembolic disease – critical evaluation of laboratory investigation. Thromb Haemost 68, 7-13 (1992).
6. Pabinger I, Brücker S, Kyrle PA et al. Hereditary deficiency of antithrombin, protein C and protein S: prevalence in patients with a history of venous thrombosis and criteria for rational patient screening. Blood Coag Fibr 3, 547-553 (1992).
7a. Lane DA, Mannucci PM, Bauer KA et al. Inherited thrombophilia: part 1. Thromb Haemost 76, 651-662 (1996).
7b. Lane DA, Mannucci PM, Bauer KA et al. Inherited thrombophilia: part 2. Thromb Haemost 76, 824-834 (1996).
8. Dahlbäck B, Carlsson M, Svensson PJ. Familial thrombophilia due to a previously unrecognized mechanism characterized by poor anticoagulant response to activated protein C: prediction of a cofactor to activated protein C. Proc Nat Acad Sci 90, 1004-1008 (1993).
9. Griffin JH, Evatt B, Wideman C, Fernández JA. Anticoagulant protein C pathway defective in majority of thrombophilic patients. Blood 82, 1989-1993 (1993).
10. Koster T, Rosendaal F, de Ronde H et al. Venous Thrombosis due to poor anticoagulant response to activated protein C: Leiden Thrombophilia Study. Lancet 342, 1503-1506 (1993).
11. Svensson PJ, Dahlbäck B. Resistance to activated protein C as a basis for venous thrombosis. New Engl J Med 330, 517-522 (1994).
12. Cadroy Y, Sié P, Boneu B. Frequency of a defective response to activated protein C in patients with a history of venous thrombosis. Letters to the Editor. Blood 94, 2008 -2009 (1994).
13. Bertina RM, Koeleman BPC, Koster T et al. Mutation in blood coagulation factor V associated with resistance to Activated Protein C. Nature 369, 64-67 (1994).
14. Voorberg J, Roelse J, Koopman R et al. Association of idiopathic venous thromboembolism with single point- mutation at Arg506 of Factor V. Lancet 343, 1535-1536 (1994).
15. Zöller B, Dahlbäck B. Linkage Between inherited resistance to activated protein C and factor V gene mutation in venous thrombosis. Lancet 343, 1536-1538 (1994).
16. Zöller B, Svensson PJ, He X, Dahlbäck B. Identification of the same factor V gene mutation in 47 out of 50 thrombosis-prone families with inherited resistance to activated protein C. J Clin Invest, 94, 2521-2524 (1994).
17. Davie EW, Fujikawa K, Kisiel W. The coagulation cascade: Initiation, maintenance and regulation. Biochemistry 30, 10363-10370 (1991).
18. Mosher DF. Blood coagulation and fibrinolysis: an overview. Clin Cardiol 13, VI 5-11 (1990).
19. Morrissey JH. Tissue factor.In: High KA, Roberts HR (eds) Molecular basis of thrombosis and hemostasis. New York: Marcel Dekker, 101-118 (1995).
20. Saito H, Kojima T. Factor XII, prekallikrein, and highmolecular-weight kininogen. In: High KA, Roberts HR (eds) Molecular basis of thrombosis and hemostasis. New York: Marcel Dekker, 269-285 (1995).
21. Degen SJF. Prothrombin. In: High KA, Roberts HR (eds) Molecular basis of thrombosis and hemostasis. New York: Marcel Dekker, 75-100 (1995).
22. Ortel TL, Kane WH. Factor V. In: High KA, Roberts HR (eds) Molecular basis of thrombosis and hemostasis. New York: Marcel Dekker, 119-146 (1995).
23. Tuddenham EGD. Factor VIII. In: High KA, Roberts HR (eds) Molecular basis of thrombosis and hemostasis. New York: Marcel Dekker, 167-195 (1995).
24. Mann KG, Jenny RJ, Krishnaswamy S. Cofactor proteins in the assembly and expression of blood clotting enzyme complexes. Annu Rev Biochem 57, 915-956 (1988).
25. Olson ST. Björk I. Regulation of thrombin by antithrombin and heparin cofactor II. In: Berliner LJ (ed) Thrombin: structure and function. New York: Plenum Press 159-217, (1992).
26. Jaffe AE. Endothelial cell structure and function. In: Hoffman R et al (eds) Hematology, basic principles and practice. Churchill Livingstone, 1198-1212 (1991).
27. Dahlbäck B, Stenflo J. A natural anticoagulant pathway: proteins C,S, C4b-binding protein and thrombomodulin. In: Haemostasis and Thrombosis 3rd ed. A L Bloom, C D Forbes, D P Thomas, E G D Tuddenham (eds). Churchill Livingstone, 671-697 (1994).
28. Dahlbäck B. The protein C anticoagulant system: inherited defects as a basis for venous thrombosis. Thromb Res 77, 1-43 (1995).
29. Shen L, Dahlbäck B. Factor V and protein S as synergistic cofactors to activated protein C in degradation of factor VIIIa. J Biol Chem 269, 18735-18738 (1994).
30. Váradi K, Rosing J, Tans G, Schwarz HP. Influence of factor V and factor Va on APC-induced cleavage of human factor VIII. – Letters to the Editor. Thromb Haemost 73, 730-731 (1995).
31. Váradi K, Rosing J, Tans G et al. Factor V enhances the cofactor function of protein S in the APC-mediated inactivation of factor VIII: influence of the factor VR506Q Mutation. Thromb Haemost 76, 208-214 (1996).
32. Lu D, Kalafatis M, Mann KG, Long GL. Comparison of activated protein C/protein S-mediated inactivation of human factor VIII and factor V.Blood 87, 4708-4717 (1996).
33. Hoyer LW. Hemophilia A. New Engl J Med 330, 38-47 (1994).
34. Kalafatis M, Rand MD, Mann KG. The mechanism of inactivation of human factor V and human factor Va by activated protein C. J Biol Chem 269, 31869-31880 (1994).
35. Camire RM, Kalifatis M, Cushman M et al. The mechanism of inactivation of human platelet factor Va from normal and activated protein C-resistant individuals. J Biol Chem 270, 20794-20800 (1995).
36. Fay PJ. Factor VIII structure and function. Thromb Haemost 70, 63-67 (1993).
37. Dahlbäck B, Hildebrand B. Inherited resistance to activated protein C is corrected by anticoagulant cofactor activity found to be a property of factor V. Proc Nat Acad Sci 91, 1396-1400 (1994).
38. Sun X, Evatt B, Griffin JH. Blood coagulation factor Va abnormality associated with resistance to activated protein C in venous thrombophilia. Blood 11, 3120-3125 (1994).
39. Kalafatis M, Bertina RM, Rand MD, Mann KG. Characterization of the molecular defect in factor VR506Q. J Biol Chem 270, 4053-4057 (1995).
40. Heeb MJ, Kojima Y, Greengard JS, Griffin JH. Activated protein C resistance: molecular mechanism based on studies using purified Gln506-factor V.Blood 85, 3405-3411 (1995).
41. Griffin JH, Heeb MJ, Kojima Y et al. Activated protein C resistance: molecular mechanism. Thromb Haemost 74, 444-448 (1995).
42. Aparicio C, Dahlbäck B. Molecular mechanisms of activated protein C resistance. Properties of factor V isolated from an individual with homozygosity for the Arg506 to Gln mutation in the factor V gene. Biochem J 313, 467-472, (1996).
43. Greengard JS, Eichinger S, Griffin JH, Bauer KA. Brief Report: Variability of thrombosis among homozygous siblings with resistance to activated protein C due to an Arg to Gln mutation in the gene for factor V. New Engl J Med 331, 1559- 1562 (1994).
44. Simioni P, Scarano L, Gavasso S et al. Prothrombin fragment 1+2 and thrombin-antithrombin complex levels in patients with inherited APC Resistance due to factor V Leiden mutation. Br J Haem 92, 435-441 (1996).
45. Zöller B, Holm J, Svensson P, Dahlbäck B. Elevated levels of prothrombin activation fragment 1+2 in plasma from patients with heterozygous Arg506 to Gln mutation in the factor V gene (APC-Resistance) and/or inherited protein S deficiency. Thromb Haemost 75, 270-274 (1996).
46. Martinelli I, Bottasso B, Duca F et al. Heightened thrombin generation in individuals with resistance to activated protein C.Thromb Haemost 75, 703-705 (1996).
47. Bertina, Reitsma PH, Rosendaal FR, Vandenbroucke JP. Resistance to activated protein C and factor V Leiden as risk factors for venous thrombosis. Thromb Haemost 74, 449-453 (1995).
48. Bajzar L, Kalafatis M, Simioni P, Tracy PB. An antifibrinolytic mechanism describing the prothrombotic effect associated with factor V Leiden. J Biol Chem 38, 22949-22952 (1996).
49. Roelse JC, Koopman MW, Büller HR et al. Absence of mutations at the activated protein C cleavage sites of factor VIII in 126 patients with venous thrombosis. Br J Haem 92, 740-743 (1996).
50. De Stefano V, Finazzi G, Mannucci PM. Inherited thrombophilia: pathogenesis, clinical syndromes, and management. Blood 87, 3531-3544 (1996).
51. Johansson K, Lindberg K, Menschik M, Rosén S. Evaluation of a kit for detection of resistance in plasma towards activated protein C activity in a modified APTT assay. Thromb Haemost 69, 1120 (1993).
52. Hall CM, Andersson NE, Andras M et al. Rapid and reliable detection of FV:Q506 in plasma from heparin- and OAC-treated patients using the Coatest® APC™ Resistance V assay. Blood 10, suppl 1, 172a (1996).
53. Samaha M, Trossaert M, Conard J et al. Prevalence and patient profile in activated protein C resistance. Coagul Trans Med 4, 450-454 (1995).
54. Rosendaal FR, Koster T, Vandenbrouck JP, Reitsma PH. High risk of thrombosis in patients homozygous for factor V Leiden (Activated protein C resistance). Blood 85, 1504-1508 (1995).
55. Halbmayer WM, Haushofer A, Schön R and Fischer M. The Prevalence of poor anticoagulant response to activated protein C (APC resistance) among patients suffering from stroke or venous thrombosis and among healthy subjects. Blood Coag Fibr 5, 51-57 (1994).
56. Trossaërt M, Conard J, Horellou MH et al. Résistance à la protéine C activée dans les accidents thrombo-emboliques veineux fréquence et manifestations cliniques. La Presse Médicale 24, 4, 209, (1995).
57. Arruda VR, Annichino-Bizzacchi JM, Costa FF and Reitsma PH. Factor V Leiden (FVQ 506) is common in a Brazilian population. Am J Hematol 49, 242-243 (1995).
58. Ma DDF, Williams BG, Aboud MR, Isbister JP. Activated protein C resistance (APC) and inherited factor V (FV) mis-sense mutation in patients with venous and arterial thrombosis in a haematology clinic. Aust NZ J Med 25, 151-154 (1995).
59. Kambayashi J, Fujimura H, Kawasaki T et al. The incidence of activated protein C resistance among patients with deep vein thrombosis and healthy subjects in Osaka. Thromb Res 79, 227- 229 (1995).
60. Fujimura H, Kambayashi J, Monden M. Coagulation factor V Leiden may have a racial background. Letters to the Editor. Thromb Haemost 74, 1379-1387 (1995).
61. Ortega IS, Gala JMG and Pinto CR. Activated Protein C: New Facts. Letters to the Editor. Blood Coag Fibr 6, 144 (1995).
62. Lopaciuk S, Bykowska K. Prevalence of poor anticoagulant response to activated protein C in patients with a history of venous thrombosis. (Abstract) Haemostasis 24 (suppl 1), 141 (1994).
63. Pati HP, Srivastava A, Dayal S. Resistance to activated protein C (APC) in Indian patients of thrombophilia. Indian J Med Res 104, 213-215 (1996).
64. Tosetto A, Gatto E, Masiero MT, Rodeghiero F. APCresistance in the general population. Relationship with other coagulation variables and with venous thrombotic history. (Abstract) Br J Haematol 87 (suppl 1), 188 (1994).
65. Borell M, Vallvé C, Urrutia T et al. APC resistance in patients with thrombophilia. (Abstract) Haemostasis 24 (suppl 1), 145 (1994).
66. Alhenc-Gelas M, Gandrille S, Aubry ML et al. Unexplained thrombosis and factor V Leiden. Lancet 344, 555-556 (1994).
67. Cushman M, Bhushan F, Bovill E, Tracy R. Plasma resistance to activated protein C in venous and arterial thrombosis. Letters to the Editor. Thromb Haemost 72, 647 (1994).
68. De Stefano V, Mastrangelo S, Paciaroni K et al. Thrombotic risk during pregnancy and puerperium in women with APC resistance- effective subcutaneous heparin prophylaxis in a pregnant patient. Letters to the editor. Thromb Haemost 74, 793-794 (1995).
69. Ridker PM, Hennekens CH, Lindpaintner K et al. Mutation in the gene coding for coagulation factor V and the risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, and venous thrombosis in apparently healthy men. New Engl J Med 332, 912-917 (1995).
70. Chan LC, Bourke C, Lam CK et al. Lack of activated protein C resistance in healthy Hong Kong Chinese blood donors – correlation with absence of Arg506Gln mutation. Letters to the Editor.Thromb Haemost 75, 523 (1996).
71. Zöller B, Dahlbäck B. Resistance to activated protein C caused by a factor V gene mutation. Current Opinion in Hematology 2, 358-364 (1995).
72. Prohaska W, Mannebach H, Schmidt M et al. Evidence against heterozygous coagulation factor V 1691 G to A mutation with resistance to activated protein C being a risk factor for coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction. J Mol Med 73, 521-524 (1995).
73. Beauchamp NJ, Daly ME, Hampton KK et al. High prevalence of a mutation in the factor V gene within the UK Population: Relationship to activated protein C Resistance and familial thrombosis. Brit J Haem 88, 219-22 (1994).
74. Soubrier F, Fery I, Verdy E et al. The frequency of the factor V gene R506Q mutation varies between regions of France. Nouv Rev Fr Hematol 37, 175 (1995).
75. Emmerich J, Poirier O, Evans A et al. Myocardial Infarction, Arg506 to Gln factor V mutation, and activated protein C resistance. Letters to the Editor. Lancet 345, 321 (1995).
76. Takamiya O, Ishida F, Kodaira H et al. APC-resistance and Mnl I genotype (Gln506) of coagulation factor V are rare in the Japanese population. Thromb Haemost 74, 990-997 (1995).
77. Rees DC, Cox M, Clegg JB. World distribution of factor V Leiden. Lancet 346, 1133-1134 (1995).
78. Holm J, Zöller B, Berntorp E et al. Prevalence of factor V gene mutation amongst myocardial infarction patients and healthy controls is higher in Sweden than in other countries. J Inter Med 239, 221-226 (1996).
79. Ozawa T, Niiya K and Sakuragawa N. Absence of factor V Leiden in the Japanese. Letter to the Editors-in-Chief. Thromb Haemost 81, 595-595 (1996).
80. Chaida C, Gialeraki A, Tsoukala C, Mandalaki T. Prevalence of the FVQ506 mutation in the hellenic population. Thromb Haemost 76, 124-128 (1996).
81. Arruda VR, von Suben PM, Soares MCP et al. Very low incidence of Arg506->Gln mutation in the factor V gene among the Amazonian Indians and the Brazilian black population. Thromb Haemost 75, 860-861 (1996).
82. Lee DH, Henderson PA, Blajchman MA. Prevalence of factor V Leiden in a Canadian blood donor population.Can Med Assoc J 155, 285-289 (1996).
83. Ko YL, Hsu TS, Wu SM et al. The G1691A mutation of the coagulation factor V gene (Factor V Leiden) is rare in Chinese: an analysis of 618 individuals. Hum Genet 98, 176-177 (1996).
84. Schröder W, Koesling M, Wulff K et al. Large-scale screening for factor V Leiden mutation in a north-eastern German population. Haemostasis 26, 233-236 (1996).
85. Braun A, Müller B and Rosche AA. Population study of the G1691A mutation (R506Q, FV Leiden) in the human factor V gene that is associated with resistance to activated protein C. Hum Genet 97, 263-264 (1996).
86. Schröder W, Koessling M, Wulff K et al. World distribution of factor V Leiden mutation. – Letters to the Editor. Lancet 347, 58 -59 (1996).
87. De Maat MPM, Kluft C, Jespersen J, Gram J. World distribution of factor V Leiden mutation. – Letters to the Editor. Lancet 347, 58 (1996).
88. Gou D, Naipai A and Reitsma PH. World distribution of factor V Leiden mutation. Letters to the Editor. Lancet 347, 59 (1996).
89. Mannucci PM, Duca F, Peyvandi F et al. Frequency of factor V Arg506 Gln in Italians. Letters to the Editor. Thromb Haemost 75, 694 (1996).
90. Dzimiri N, Meyer B. World distribution of factor V Leiden. – Letters to the Editor. Lancet 347, 481-482 (1996).
91. Pottinger P, Sigurdsson F. Detection of the factor V Leiden mutation in a nonselected black population. Correspondence – Letters to the Editor.Blood 87, 2091 (1996).
92. Hooper WC, Dilley A, Ribeiro MJA et al. A racial difference in the prevalence of the Arg506->Gln mutation. Thromb Haemost 81, 577-581 (1996).
93. Kontula K, Ylikorkala A, Miettinen H et al. Arg506 Gln Factor V Mutation (Factor V Leiden) in Patients with Ischaemic Cerebrovascular Disease and Survivors of Myocardial Infarction. Rapid Communication. Thromb Haemost 73, 558-560 (1995).
94. Cox MJ, Rees DC, Martinson JJ, Klegg JB. Evidence for a single origin of factor V Leiden. Br J Haem 92, 1022-1025 (1996).
95. Leroy-Matheron C, Levent M, Pignon JM et al. The 1691G->A mutation in the factor V gene: relationship to activated protein C (APC) resistance and thrombosis in 65 patients. Thromb Haemost 75, 4-10 (1996).
96. Samama M, Simon D, Horellou MH et al. Diagnosis and clinical characteristics of inherited activated protein C resistance. Haemostasis 26 (suppl 4), 315-330 (1996).
97. Scat Y, Morin Y, Morel Ch, Haut J. Occlusion veineuse de la rétine et résistance à la protéine C activée. Memoires Originaux. J Fr Ophtalmol 18, 758-762 (1995).
98. Hunt BJ. Activated protein C and retinal vein occlusion.Br J Ophthalm 80, 194 (1996).
99. Larsson J, Olafsdottir E, Bauer B. Activated protein C resistance in young adults with central retinal vein occlusion. Br J Ophthalmol 80, 200-202 (1996).
100. Williamsson TH, Rumley A, Lowe GDO. Blood viscosity, coagulation, and activated protein C resistance in central retinal vein occlusion: A population controlled study. Br J Ophthalmol 80, 203-208 (1996).
101. Raguenes O, Mercier B, Escoffre M et al. mutation 1691 G->A du gène du facteur V: pas d´association avec les thromboses de la veine centrale de la rétine. Presse Med 25, 460 (1996). Réponse des auteurs:F Lellouche. Presse Med 25, 460 (1996).
102. Levoir D, Emmerich J, Alhenc-Gelas M et al. Portal vein thrombosis and factor V Arg 506 to Gln mutation. Letter to the Editor. Thromb Haemost 73, 546-556 (1995).
103. Foulc P, Bihan GL, Guillerm C et al. Thrombose portale chez une malade ayant une maladie de Vaquez et le facteur V Leiden. Presse Med 25, 1126 (1996).
104. Horstkamp B, Lübke M, Kentenich H et al. Internal jugular vein thrombosis caused by resistance to activated protein C as a complication of ovarian hyperstimulation after in-vitro fertilization. – case report. Hum Reprod 11, 280-282 (1996).
105. Martinelli I, Landi G, Merati G et al. Factor V gene mutation is a risk factor for cerebral venous thrombosis. Thromb Haemost 75, 393-394 (1996).
106. Vuillier F, Moulin T, Tatu L et al. Isolated cortical vein thrombosis and activated protein C resistance.Stroke 27, 1440- 1441 (1996).
107. Denninger M-H, Beldjord K, Durand F et al. Budd-Chiari syndrome and factor V Leiden mutation. Letters to the Editor. Lancet 345, 525-526 (1995).
108. Mahmoud AEA, Wilde JT, Elias E. Budd-Chiari syndrome and factor V Leiden mutation. Letters to the Editor. Lancet 345, 526 (1995).
109. Mambrini P, Mallet D, O’Callaghan T et al. Budd-Chiari syndrome and activated protein C resistance. J Hep 24, 246 (1996).
110. Petäjä J, Jalanko H, Holmberg C et al. Resistance to activated protein C as an underlying cause of recurrent venous thrombosis during relapsing nephrotic syndrome. J Pediatr 127, 103-105 (1995).
111. Munkvad S, Jørgensen M. Resistance to activated protein C: a common anticoagulant deficiency in patients with venous leg ulceration.Br J Determ 134, 296-298 (1996).
112. Peus D, Schmiedeberg S, Pier A et al. Coagulation factor V gene mutation associated with activated protein C resistance leading to recurrent thrombosis, leg ulcers, and lymphedema: successful treatment with intermittent compression. J Am Acad Dermatol 35, 306-309 (1996).
113. Gardyn J, Sorkin P, Kluger Y et al. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and fatal thrombosis in a patient with activated protein C resistance. Am J Hematol 50, 292-295 (1996).
114. De Prost D, Delmas V, Lefebvre M et al. Priapism revealing Arg506 to Gln factor V mutation. J Urology 155, 1392 (1996).
115. Bucalossi A, Marotta G, Bigazzi C et al. Reduction of antithrombin III, protein C, and protein S levels and activated protein C resistance in polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia patients with thrombosis. Am J Hematol 52, 14-20 (1996).
116. Zenz W, Muntean W, Gallistl S et al. Inherited resistance to activated protein C in a boy with multiple thromboses in early infancy. Original Paper, Eur J Pediatr 154, 285-288 (1995).
117. Kodish E, Potter C, Kirschbaum N, Foster PA. Activated protein C resistance in a neonate with venous thrombosis. J Pediatr 127, 645-648 (1995).
118. Sifontes MT, Nuss R, Jacobson LJ et al. Thrombosis in otherwise well children with the factor V Leiden mutation. J Pediatr 128, 324-328 (1996).
119. Gurgey A, Mesci L, Renda Y et al. Factor V Q506 mutation in children with thrombosis. Am J Hematol 53, 37-39 (1996).
120. Perkins W, Downie I, Keefe M, Chisholm M. Cutaneous necrosis in pregnancy secondary to activated protein C resistance in hereditary angioedema. J R Soc Med 88, 229-230 (1995).
121. Makris M, Bardhan G, Preston FE. Warfarin induced skin necrosis associated with activated protein C resistance. Letters to the Editor. Thromb Haemost 75, 524 (1996).
122. Simioni P, de Ronde H, Prandoni P et al. Ischemic stroke in young patients with activated protein C resistance. Stroke 26, 885-890 (1995).
123. Ganesan V, Kelsey H, Cookson J et al. Activated protein C resistance in childhood stroke. Lancet 347, 260 (1996).
124. Nowak-Göttl U, Koch HG, Aschka I et al. Resistance to activated protein C (APCR) in children with venous or arterial thromboembolism. Br J Haem 92, 992-998 (1996).
125. Albucher JF, Guiraud-Chaumeil B, Chollet F et al. Frequency of resistance to activated protein C due to factor V mutation in young patients with ischemic stroke. Stroke 27, 766 (1996).
126. Montaruli B, Voorberg J, Tamponi G et al. Arterial and venous thrombosis in two Italian families with the factor V Arg506›Gln mutation. Eur J Haematol 57, 96-100 (1996).
127. Samani NJ, Lodwick D, Martin D, Kimber P. Resistance to activated protein C and risk of premature myocardial infarction. Letters to the Editor. Lancet 344, 1709-1710 (1994).
128. Demarmels Biasiutti F, Merlo C, Furlan M et al. No association of APC resistance with myocardial infarction. Blood Coag Fibrinol 6, 456-459 (1995).
129. Van Bockxmeer FM, Baker RI, Taylor RR. Premature ischaemic heart disease and the gene for coagulation factor V. Nature Med 1,185 (1995).
130. Eritsland J, Gjönnes G, Sandset PM et al. Activated protein C resistance and graft occlusion after coronary artery bypass surgery. Thromb res 79, 223-226 (1995).
131. Ardissino D, Peyvandi F, Merlini PA et al. Factor V (Arg506->Gln) mutation in young survivors of myocardial infarction.Thromb Haemost 75, 701-702 (1996).
132. März W, Seydewitz H, Winkelmann B et al. Mutation in coagulation factor V associated with resistance to activated protein C in patients with coronary artery disease. Letters to the Editor. Lancet 345, 526-527 (1995).
133. Catto A, Carter A, Ireland H et al. Factor V Leiden gene mutation and thrombin generation in relation to the development of acute stroke. Arterioscler Thromb and Vasc Biol 15, 783-785 (1995).
134. Forsyth PD, Dolan G. Activated protein C resistance in cases of cerebral infarction. Letters to the Editor. Lancet 345, 795 (1995).
135. Press RD, Liu X-Y, Beamer N, Coull BM. Ischemic stroke in the elderly. Role of the common factor V mutation causing resistance to activated protein C. Stroke 27, 44-48 (1996).
136. Lindblad B, Svensson PJ, Dahlbäck B. Arterial and venous thromboembolism with fatal outcome and resistance to activated protein C. Lancet 343, 917 (1994).
137. Holm J, Zöller B, Svensson PJ et al. Myocardial infarction associated with homozygous resistance to activated protein C. Lancet 344, 952-953 (1994).
138. Ouriel K, Green RM, De Weese JA, Cimino C. Activated protein C resistance: prevalence and implications in peripheral vascular disease.J Vasc Res 23, 46-52 (1996).
139. Sakata T, Kario K, Katayama Y et al. Clinical significance of activated protein C resistance as a potential marker for hypercoagulable state. Thromb Res 82, 235-244 (1996).
140. Fisher M, Fernández JA, Ameriso SF et al. Activated protein C resistance in ischemic stroke not due to factor V Arginine506›Glutamine mutation.Stroke 27, 1163-1166 (1996).
141.Van der Bom JG, Bots ML, Haverkate F et al. Reduced response to activated protein C is associated with increased risk for cerebrovascular disease. Ann Intern Med 125, 265-269 (1996).
142. Reitsma PH, Poort SR, Allaart CF et al. The spectrum of genetic defects in a panel of 40 Dutch families with symptomatic protein C deficiency type I: heterogenicity and founder effects. Blood 78, 890-894 (1991).
143. Tait RC, Walker ID, Reitsma PH et al. Prevalence of protein C deficiency in the healthy population. Thromb Haemost 73, 87-93 (1995).
144. Zöller B, He X, Dahlbäck B. Homozygous APC-resistance combined with inherited type 1 protein S deficiency in a young boy with severe thrombotic disease.Thromb Haemost 73, 743-745 (1995).
145. Brenner B, Zivelin A, Lanir N et al. Venous thromboembolism associated with double heterozygosity for R506Q mutation of factor V and for T298M mutation of protein C in a large family of a previously described homozygous protein C-deficient newborn with massive thrombosis. Blood 88, 877-880 (1996).
146. Gandrille S, Greengard JS, Alhenc-Gelas M et al. Incidence of activated protein C resistance caused by the Arg 506 Gln mutation in factor V in 113 unrelated symptomatic protein Cdeficient patients. Blood 86, 219-224 (1995).
147. Koeleman BPC, Reitsma PH, Allart CF, Bertina RM. Activated protein C resistance as an additional risk factor for thrombosis in protein C-deficient families. Blood 84, 1031-1035 (1994).
148. Zöller B, Berntsdotter A, Garcia de Frutos P, Dahlbäck B. Resistance to activated protein C as an additional genetic risk factor in hereditary deficiency of protein S. Blood 85, 3518-3523 (1995).
149. Koeleman BPC, Van Rumpt D, Hamulyák K et al. Factor V Leiden: an additional risk factor for thrombosis in protein S deficient families. Thromb Haemost 74, 580-583 (1995).
150. Van Boven HH, Reitsma PH, Rosendaal FR et al. Factor V Leiden (FV R506Q) in families with inherited antithrombin deficiency.Thromb Haemost 75, 417-421 (1996).
151. Martinelli I, Magatelli R, Cattaneo M, Mannucci PM. Prevalence of mutant factor V in Italian patients with hereditary deficiencies of antithrombin, protein C or protein S. Letters to the Editor.Thromb Haemost 75, 694-695 (1996).
152. Hallam PJ, Millar DS, Krawczak M et al. Population differences in the frequency of the factor V Leiden variant among people with clinically symptomatic protein C deficiency. J Med Genet 32, 543-545 (1995).
153. Simioni P, Prandoni P, Girolami A. Patients with AT III, protein C or protein S defects show no associated hereditary APC resistance. Letters to the Editor. Thromb Haemost 72, 481-482 (1994).
154. Mandel H, Brenner B, Berant M et al. Coexistance of hereditary homocystinuria and factor V Leiden – effect on thrombosis. N Engl J Med 334, 763-768 (1996).
155. Peng F, Triplett D, Barna L, Morrical D. Pulmonary embolism and premature labor in a patient with both factor V Leiden mutation and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene C677T mutation. Thromb Res 83, 243-251 (1996).
156. Brenner B, Vulfsons SL, Lanir N, Nahir M. Coexistence of familial antiphospholipid syndrome and factor V Leiden: impact on thrombotic diathesis. Br J Haematol, 166-167 (1996).
157. Bernardi F, Legnani C, Micheletti F et al. A heparin cofactor II mutation (HCII Rimini) combined with Factor V Leiden or Type I Protein C deficiency in two unrelated Thrombophilic subjects. Thromb Haemost 76, 505-509 (1996).
158. Züger M, Biasiutti FD, Furlan M et al. Plasminogen deficiency: an additional risk factor for thrombosis in a family with factor V R506Q mutation? Letters to the Editor. Thromb Haemost 76, 475-480 (1996).
159. Nichols WC, Amano K, Cacheris PM et al. Moderation of hemophilia A phenotype by the factor V R506Q mutation. Blood 99, 1183-1187 (1996).
160. Arruda VR, Annichino-Bizzacchi JM, Antunes SV, Costa FF. Association of severe haemophilia A and factor V Leiden: report of three cases. Haemophilia 2, 51-53 (1996).
161.Simioni P, Scudeller A, Radossi P et al. “Pseudo homozygous” activated protein C resistance due to double heterozygous factor V defects (factor V Leiden mutation and type 1 quantitative factor V defect) associated with thrombosis: report of two cases belonging to two unrelated kindreds.Thromb Haemost 75, 422-426 (1996).
162. Zehnder JL, Jain M. Recurrent thrombosis due to compound heterozygosity for factor V Leiden and factor V deficiency. Blood Coag Fibr 7, 361-362 (1996).
163. Nowak-Göttl U, Sträter R, Dübbers A et al. Ischaemic stroke in infancy and childhood: role of the Arg506 to Gln mutation in the factor V gene. Blood Coag Fibr 7, 684-688 (1996).
164. Jeffery S, Leatham E, Zhang Y et al. Factor V Leiden polymorphism (FV Q506) in patients with ischaemic heart disease, and in different populations groups. J Hum Hyperten 19, 433-434 (1996).
165. Pipe SW, Schmaier AH, Nichols WC et al. Neonatal purpura fulminans in association with factor V R506Q mutation. J Pediatr 128, 706-709 (1996).
166. Nowak-Göttl U, Aschka I, Koch HG et al. Resistance to activated protein C (APCR) in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia – the need for a prospective multicentre study. Blood Coag Fibr 6, 761-764 (1995).
167. Beauchamp NJ, Daly ME, Cooper PC et al. Molecular basis of protein S deficiency in three families also showing independent inheritance of factor V Leiden. Blood 88, 1700-1707 (1996).
168. McColl M, Tait RC, Walker ID et al. Low thrombosis rate seen in blood donors and their relatives with inherited deficiencies of antithrombin and protein C: correlation with type of defect, family history, and absence of the factor V Leiden mutation. Blood Coag Fibr 7, 689-694 (1996).
169. Landi G, Cell E, Martinelli I et al. Arg506Gln factor V mutation and cerebral ischemia in the young. Letter to the editor. Stroke 27, 1697-1698 (1966).
170. De Lucia D, de Blasio G, Belli A et al. High prevalence of activated protein C resistance in patients with systemic sclerosis. Int J Clin Lab Res 25, 226-227 (1995).
171. Walker ID. Managment of thrombophilia in pregnancy. Blood Rev 5, 227-233 (1990).
172. Hellgren M, Svensson PJ, Dahlbäck B. Resistance to activated protein C as a basis for venous thromboembolism associated with pregnancy and oral contraceptives. Am J Obstet Gynecol 173, 210-213 (1995).
173. Bokarewa MI, Bremme K, Blombäck M. Arg506-Gln mutation in factor V and risk of thrombosis during pregnancy. Br J Haem 92, 473-478 (1996).
174. Schlit AF, Col-de Beys C, Moriau M, Lavenne-Pardonge E. Acquired activated protein C resistance in pregnancy. Thromb Res 84, 203-206 (1996).
175. Hirsch DR, Mikkola KM, Marks PW et al. Pulmonary embolism and deep venous thrombosis during pregnancy or oral contraceptive use: prevalence of factor V Leiden. Am Heart J 131, 1145-1148 (1996).
176. Grisaru D, Fait G, Eldor A. Activated protein C resistance and pregnancy complications. Letters to the Editor.Am J Obstet Gynecol 174, 801-802 (1996).
177. Rai R, Regan L, Hadley E et al. Second-trimester pregnancy loss is associated with activated protein C resistance. Br J Haem 92, 489-490 (1996).
178. Rai RS, Regan L, Donald JG, Cohen H. Placental thrombosis and second trimester miscarriage in association with activated protein C resistance. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 103, 842-844 (1996).
179. Henkens CMA, Bom VJJ, Seinen AJ, Van der Meer J. Sensitivity to activated protein C; influence of oral contraceptives and sex. Thromb Haemost 73, 402-404 (1995).
180. Cumming AM, Tait RC, Fildes S et al. Development of resistance to activated protein C during pregnancy. Br J Haematol 90, 725-727 (1995).
181. Mathonnet F, de Mazancourt P, Bastenaire B et al. Activated protein C sensitivity ratio in pregnant women at delivery. Br J Haem 92, 244-246 (1996).
182. Cumming AM, Campbell R, Fildes S, Hay CRM. Diagnosis of APC resistance during pregnancy. Br J Haem 92, 1026-1029 (1996).
183. Vasse M, Leduc O, Borg J-Y et al. Resistance to activated protein C: evaluation of three functional assays. Thromb Res 76, 47-59 (1994).
184. Henkens CMA, Bom VJJ, Van der Meer J. Lowered APC Ssensitivity ratio related to increased factor VIII-clotting activity. – Letters to the Editor. Thromb Haemost 74, 1198-1199 (1995).
185. Vandenbroucke JP, Koster T, Briët E et al. Increased risk of venous thrombosis in oral – contraceptive users who are carriers mof factor V Leiden mutation. Lancet 344, 1453-1457 (1994).
186. Bloemenkamp KWM, Rosendaal FR, Helmerhorst FM et al. Enhancement by factor V Leiden mutation of risk of deep-vein thrombosis associated with oral contraceptives containing a third-generation progestagen. Lancet 346, 1593-1596 (1995).
187. Henkens CMA, Bom VJJ, van der Schaaf W et al. Plasma levels of protein S, protein C, and factor X: effects of sex, hormonal state and age. Thromb Haemost 74, 1255-1258 (1995).
188. Olivieri O, Friso S, Manzato F et al. Resistance to activated protein C, associated with oral contraceptives use; effect of formulations, duration of assumption, and doses of oestro-progestins. Contraception 54, 149-152 (1996).
189a. Østerud B, Robertsen R, Åsvang GB, Thijssen F. Resistance to activated protein C is reduced in women using oral contraceptives. Blood Coag Fibr 5, 853-854 (1994).
189b. Girolami A, Paulo S, Bruno G, Luigi S. Oral contraceptive therapy causes an increased and not a decreased resistance to APC and Authors’ reply by B Østerud. Letters to the Editor. Blood Coag Fibr 6, 143 -144 (1995).
190. Olivieri O, Friso S, Manzato F et al. Resistance to activated protein C in healthy women taking oral contraceptives. Br J Haematol 91, 465-470 (1995).
191. Pabinger I, Schneider B and the GTH Study Group on Natural Inhibitors. Thrombotic risk of women with hereditary antithrombin III- protein C- and protein S-deficiency taking oral contraceptive medication. Thromb Haemost 71, 548-552 (1994).
192. Rintelen C, Mannhalter C, Ireland H et al. Oral contraceptives enhance the risk of clinical manifestations of venous thrombosis at young age in females homozygous for factor V Leide. Br J Haematol 93, 487-490 (1996).
193. Gertsmann BB, Piper JM, Tarrita DK et al. Oral contraceptive oestrogen dose and risk of deep venous thromboembolic disease. Am J Epidemiol 133, 32-37 (1991).
194. Pasi KJ, Perry DJ, Lee CA. Thromboembolism and the combined oral contraceptive pill. Letters to the Editor. Lancet 345, 1437 (1995).
195. Bridey F, Wolff M, Laissy JP et al. Fatal cerebral venous sinus thrombosis associated with the factor V Leiden mutation and the use of oral contraceptives. Thromb Haemost 74, 1379-1387 (1995).
196. Solymoss S. Factor V Leiden: Who should be tested? Can Med Assoc J 155, 296-298 (1996).
197. Martinelli I, Rosendaal FR, Vandenbroucke JP, Mannucci PM. Oral contraceptives are a risk factor for cerebral vein thrombosis. Letters to the Editor.Thromb Haemost 76, 477-478 (1996).ES
198. Rosendaal FR. Oral contraceptives and screening for factor V Leiden. Letters to the Editor.Thromb Haemost 75, 525 (1996).
199. Haas S. Impact of the European consensus statement on the clinical acceptance of low molecular weight heparin. Clin Appl Thromb Haemost 2, suppl 1, S35-S39 (1996)
200. Fauno P, Ravn HB, Lassen JF et al. Association between activated protein C resistance and postoperative deep vein thrombosis. Thromb Haemost 73 (abstract), 1371 (1995).
201. Bergqvist D, Benoni G, Björgell et al. Low-molecular weight heparin (enoxaparin) as prophylaxis against venous thromboembolism after total hip replacement. N engl J Med 335, 696-700 (1996).
202. Dahl OE, Andreassen G, Aspelin T et al. Prolonged thromboprophylaxis following hip replacement surgery – results of a double -blind, prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study with Dalteparin (Fragmin®). Thromb Haemost 77, 26-31 (1997).
203. Alarcon-Segovia D, Sanchez-Guerrero J. Primary antiphospholipid syndrome. J rheutamol 16, 482-488 (1989).
204. De Groot PG, Derksen RHWM. Protein C pathway, antiphospholipid antibodies and thrombosis. Lupus 3, 229-233 (1994).
205. Bokarewa MI, Blombäck M, Egberg N, Rosén S. A new variant of interaction between phospholipid antibodies and the protein C system. Blood Coag Fibr 5, 37-41 (1994).
206. Ehrenforth S, Radtke KP, Scharrer I. Acquired activated protein C – resistance in patients with lupus anticoagulant. Letters to the editor. Thromb Haemost 74, 797-798 (1995).
207. Marciniak E, Romond EH. Impaired catalytic function of activated protein C: a new in vitro manifestation of lupus anticoagulant. Blood 7, 2426-2432 (1989).
208. Matsuda J, Gohchi K, Tsukamoto M et al. Resistance to activated protein C in systemic lupus erythematosus patients with antiphospholipid antibodies. – Letters to the Editor. Eur J Haem 53, 188-189 (1994).
209. Pötzsch B, Kawamura H, Preissner K et al. Acquired protein C dysfuction but not decreased activity of thrombomodulin is a possible marker of thrombophilia in patients with lupus anticoagulant. J Lab Clin Med 125, 56-65 (1995).
210. Gschwandtner ME, Eichinger S, Hütter D et al. Lupus anticoagulant and thromboembolism: evaluation of fibrinogen, natural inhibitors and molecular markers of thrombosis. Blood Coag Fibr 7, 325-330 (1996).
211. Ruiz-Argüelles GJ, Garcés-Eisele J, Alarcón-Segovia D, Ruiz-Argüelles A. Activated protein C resistance phenotype and genotype in patients with primary antiphospholipid syndrome. Blood Coag Fibr 7, 344-348 (1996).
212. Dizon-Townson D, Hutchison C, Silver R et al. The factor V Leiden mutation which predisposes to thrombosis is not common in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome. Thromb Haemost 74, 1029-1031 (1995).
213. Biousse V, Piette JC, Frances C et al. Primary antiphospholipid syndrome is not associated with activated protein C resistance caused by factor V Arg->Gln Mutation. Letters to the Editor. J Rheumatol 22, 1215 (1995).
214. Tsakiris DA, Yasikoff M-L, Wolf F, Marbet GA. Anticardiolipin antibodies do not seem to be associated with APC resistance in vivo or in vitro.Ann Hematol 71, 195-198 (1995).
215. Gschwandtner ME, Lechner K, Pabinger I. Erroneously low APC ratio in patients with lupus anticoagulant. Ann Hematol 70, 169-170 (1995).
216. Manten B, Westendorp RGJ, Koster T et al. Risk factor profiles in patients with different clinical manifestations of venous thromboembolism: A focus on the factor V Leiden mutation. Thromb Haemost 76, 510-513 (1996).
217. Desmarais S, Moerloose P, Reber G et al. Resistance to activated protein C in an unselected population of patients with pulmonary embolism. Lancet 347,1374-1375 (1996).
218. Bazzan M, Aluffi E, Vaccarino A et al. Activated protein C and pulmonary embolism. Letter to the Editor. Lancet 347, 1842 (1996).
219. Aillaud MF, Suucco E, Alessi MC et al. Resistance to activated protein C – diagnostic strategy in a laboratory of haemostasis. Letter to the Editor. Thromb Haemost 74, 1197-1207 (1995).
220. Zehnder JL, Benson RC. Sensitivity and specificity of the APC resistance assay in detection of individuals with factor V Leiden. Am J Clin Pathol 106:1, 107-111 (1996).
221. Dahlbäck B. Resistance to activated protein C, the Arg506 to Gln mutation in the factor V gene, and venous thrombosis. Functional tests and DNA-based assays, pros and cons. Thromb Haemost 73, 739-742 (1995).
222. Florell SR, Rodgers III GM. Utilization of testing for activated protein C resistance in a reference laboratory. Am J Clin Pathol 106, 248-252 (1996).
223. Ridker PM, Miletich JP, Stampfer MJ et al. Factor V Leiden and risks of recurrent idiopathic venous thromboembolism. Circulation 92, 2800-2802 (1995).
224. Rintelen C, Pabinger I, Knöbl P et al. Probability of recurrence of thrombosis in patients with and without factor V Leiden. Thromb Haemost 75, 229-232 (1996).
225. De Ronde H, Bertina R. Laboratory diagnosis of APC Resistance: a critical evaluation of the test and the development of diagnostic criteria. Thromb Haemost 72, 880-886 (1994).
226. Rosén S, Johansson K, Lindberg K, Dahlbäck B. Multicenter evaluation of a kit for activated protein C resistance on various coagulation instruments using plasmas from healthy individuals. Thromb Haemost 72, 255-260 (1994).
227. Andersson NE, Lindberg K, Johansson K et al. Methodological considerations on the determination of the APC response in plasma. Hämostatisches Gleichgewicht 22, 80-82 (1995).
228. De Stefano V, Paciaroni K, Mastrangelo S et al. Instrument effect on the activated protein C resistance plasma assay performed by a commercial Kit. Thromb Haemost 75, 752-756 (1996).
229. Jorquera JI, Montoro JM, Fernández MA et al. Modified test for activated protein C resistance. Letters to the Editor. Lancet 344, 1162 -1163 (1994).
230. Trossaërt M, Conard J, Horellou MH et al. Modified APC resistance assay for patients on oral anticoagulants. Letters to the Editor. Lancet 344, 1709 (1994).
231. Cadroy Y, Sié P, Alhenc-Glas M, Aiach M. Evaluation of APC resistance in the plasma patients with Q506 mutation of factor V (factor V Leiden) and treated by oral anticoagulants. Letters to the Editor. Thromb Haemost 73, 734-735 (1995).
232. Tosetto A, Rodeghiero F. Diagnosis of APC resistance in patients on oral anticoagulant therapy. Letters to the Editor. Thromb Haemost 73, 732-733 (1995).
233. Dahlbäck B. Dr. Dahlbäck’s response to the letter by Dr. Keeling – factor V:Q506 and a negative APC-resistance test –Modified APC-resistance test offers increased sensitivity and specificity for the FV:Q506 allele. Letter to the Editor. Thromb Haemost 74, 1380-1381 (1995).
234. Dahlbäck B, Hillarp A, Rosén S, Zöller B. Resistance to activated protein C, the FV:Q506 allele, and venous thrombosis. Ann Hematol 72, 166-176 (1996).
235. Gouault-Heilmann M, Leroy-Matheron C. Factor V Leiden-Dependent APC Resistance: Improved sensitivity and specificity of the APC Resistance test by plasma dilution in factor Vdepleted plasma. Letter to the Editors-in-Chief. Thromb Res 82, 281-283 (1996).
236. Trossaërt M, Conard J, Horellou MH et al. The modified APC resistance test in the presence of factor V deficient plasma can be used in patients without oral anticoagulant. Letters to the Editor. Thromb Haemost 75, 521-522 (1996).
237. Halbmayer W-M, Haushofer A, Schön R, Fischer M. Influence of lupus anticoagulant on a commercially available kit for APC-Resistance. Letters to the Editor.Thromb Haemost 72, 645-646 (1994).
238. Villa P, Aznar J, Jorquera JI, Casana P. Laboratory diagnosis of APC resistance in patients with lupus anticoagulant. Thromb Haemost 74, 1606-1607 (1995).
239. Martorell JR, Munoz-Castillo A, Gil JL. False positive activated protein C resistance test due to anti-phospholipid antibodies is corrected by platelet extract. Letters to Editor. Thromb Haemost 74, 793-810 (1995).
240. Luddington R, Brown K, Baglin T. Effect of platelet phospholipid exposure on activated protein C resistance: implications for thrombophilia screening. Br J Haem 92, 744-746 (1996).
241. Sidelmann J, Gram J, Pedersen OD, Jespersen J. Influence of plasma platelets on activated protein C resistance assay. Letters to Editor. Thromb Haemost 74, 990-997 (1995).
242. Shizuka R, Kanda T, Amagai H, Kobayashi I. False-Positive Activated Protein C (APC) Sensitivity ratio caused by freezing and by contamination of plasma with platelets. Letter to the Editors-in-Chief. Thromb Res 78, 189-190 (1995).
243. Trossaërt M, Conard J, Horellou MH, Samama MM. Influence of storage conditions on activated protein C resistance assay. Letters to the Editor. Thromb Haemost 73, 163 (1995).
244. Gilmore G, Thom J, Baker RI. Diagnosis of APC resistance in patients on standard or low molecular weight heparin. – Letters to the Editor. Thromb Haemost 75, 372-373 (1996).
245. Colucci M, Ciavarella N, Giliberti MG, Semeraro N. Resistance to activated protein C (APC): influence of factor V levels. Letter to the Editor. Thromb Haemost 72, 987-988 (1994).
246. Mathonnet F, de Mazancourt P, Denninger MH et al. Role on factor VIII on activated protein C resistance ratio in inflammatory diseases. Br J Haem 95, 1-3, 1996
247. Freyburger G, Bilhou-Nabera C, Dief S et al. Technical and biological conditions influencing the functional APC Resistance test.Thromb Haemost 75, 460-465 (1996).
248. Nowak-Göttl U, Kohlhase B, Vielhaber H et al. APC resistance in neonates and infants: adjustment of the APTTBased Method. Thromb Res 81, 665-670 (1996).
249. Bauer KA. Management of patients with hereditary defects predisposing to thrombosis including pregnant women. Thromb Haemost 74, 94-100 (1995).
250. Faioni EM, Franchi F, Asti D et al. Resistance to activated protein C in nine thrombophilic families: interference in a protein S functional assay. Thromb Haemost 70, 1067-1071 (1993).
251. Ireland H, Bayston T, Thompson E et al. Apparent Heterozygous Type II Protein C deficiency causedby the factor V506 Arg to Gln mutation. Letters to the Editor.Thromb Haemost 73, 731-732 (1995).
252. Nicolaes GAF, Christella M, Thomassen LGD et al. A Prothrombinase-based assay for detection of resistance to activated protein C.Thromb Haemost 76, 404-410 (1996).
253. Hoagland LE, Triplett DA, Peng F, Barna L. APC-Resistance as measured by a textarin time assay: comparison to the APTT-based method.Thromb Res 83, 363-373 (1996).
254. Kraus M, Noah M, Fickenscher K. The PCat. A Simple screening assay for assessing the functionality of the protein C anticoagulant pathway. Thromb Res 79, 217-222 (1995).
255. Hintz G, Riess, Huhn D. Inactivation of accelerin determines resistance to activated protein C. Klin Lab 4, 113-117 (1995).
256. Robert A, Eschwège V, Hameg H et al. Anticoagulant response to agkistrodon contortrix venom (ACV test): a new global test to screen for defects in the anticoagulant protein C pathway. Thromb Haemost 75, 562-566 (1996).
257. Le DT, Griffin JH, Greengard JS et al. Use of a generally applicable tissue factor-dependent factor V assay to detect activated protein C-resistant factor Va in patients receiving warfarin and in patients with a lupus anticoagulant. Blood 85, 1704-1711 (1995).
258. Varadi K, Moritz B, Lang H et al. A chromogenic assay for activated protein C resistance.Br J Haem 90, 884-891 (1995).
259. Denson KWE, Haddon ME, Reed SV et al. A more discriminating test for APC Resistance and a possible screening test to include protein C and protein S.Thromb Res 81, 151-156 (1996).
260. Rees DC, Cox M, Clegg JB. Detection of the factor V Leiden mutation using whole blood PCR. Letters to the Editor.Thromb Haemost 75, 521 (1996).
261. Ballering LAP, Bon MAM, Steffens-Nakken HM et al. Chemiluminescent detection of factor V Leiden in a routine laboratory. Ann Clin Biochem 33, 259-262 (1996).
262. Voelkerding KV, Wu L, Williams EC et al. Factor V R506Q gene mutation analysis by PCR-RFLP.Am J Clin Pathol 106:1, 100-106 (1996).
263. Blasczyk R, Ritter M, Thiede C et al. Simple and rapid detection of factor V Leiden by Allele-specific PCR amplification.Thromb Haemost 75, 757-759 (1996).
264. Beauchamp NJ, Daly ME, Cooper PC et al. Rapid two-stage PCR for detecting factor V G1691A mutation. Lancet 344, 694-695 (1994).
265. Zotz RB, Maruhn-Debowski B, Scharf RE. Mutation in the gene coding for coagulation factor V and resistance to activated protein C: detection of the genetic mutation by oligonucleotide ligation assay using a semi-automated system.Thromb Haemost 76, 53-55 (1996).
266. van der Locht L, Kuypers A, Verbruggen B et al. Semiautomated detection of the factor V mutation by allele specific amplification and capillary electrophoresis. Thromb Haemost 74, 1276-1279 (1995).
267. Guillerm C, Lellouche F, Darnige L et al. Rapid detection of the G1691A mutation of coagulation factor V by PCR-mediated site-directed mutagenesis. Clin Chem 42, 329 (1996).
268. Peng F, Triplett D, Barna L. Direct PCR of leukocytes treated with microwave irradiation to detect factor V Leiden mutation. Thromb Res 82, 193-197 (1996).
269. Kirschbaum NE, Foster PA. The polymerase chain reaction with sequence specific primers for the detection of the factor V mutation associated with activated protein C resistance. Thromb Haemost 74, 874-878 (1995).
270. Rabes JP, Trossaert M, Samama M et al. Single point mutation at arg506 of factor V associated with APC resistance and venous thromboembolism: improved detection by PCRmediated site-directed mutagenesis. Thromb Haemost 74, 1379-1387 (1995).
271. Bellissimo DB, Kirschbaum NE, Foster PA. Improved method for factor V Leiden typing by PCR-SSP. Letters to the Editor. Thromb Haemost 75, 520 (1996).
272. Gandrille S, Alhenc-Gelas M, Aiach M. A rapid screening method for the factor V Arg506 to Gln mutation. Blood Coag Fibr 6, 245-248 (1995).
273. Reitsma PH, van der Velden PA, Vogels E et al. Use of the direct RNA amplification technique NASBA to detect factor V Leiden, a point mutation associated with APC resistance. Blood Coag and Fibrinolysis 7, 659-663 (1996).
274. Saiki RK, Gelfand DH, Stoffel S. Primer-directed enzymatic amplification of DNA with a thermostable DNA polymerase. Science 239, 487-490 (1988).
275. Molecular cloning- a laboratory manual 2nd ed. Sambrook J, Fritsch EF, Maniatis T (eds). Cold Spring Harbour Laboratory Press (1989).
276. Dahlbäck B. Inherited resistance to activated protein C caused by presence of the FV:Q506 allele as a basis of venous thrombosis. Haemostasis 26, (suppl 4) 301-314 (1996).
277 Kraus M, Wagner C. Evaluation of APC-sensitivity in normal blood donors using different reagents and instruments. Thromb Res 76, 231-236 (1994).
278. Hall CM, Andersson NE, Andersson M et al. Complete discrimination for FV:Q506 in plasma from OAC-patients, heparin patients and non-treated individuals using Coatest APC resistance assay after predilution in V-DEF Plasma. Blood Coag Fibrinol 7, 390, P5 (1996).
279. Rosén, Andersson NE, Andersson M et al. Modified Coatest ® APC™ Resistance assay including V-DEF Plasma with a heparin antagonist: analysis of heparin and OAC plasmas and influence of preanalytical variables. Blood Coag Fibrinol 7, 390, P6 (1996).
280. Rosén S, Lindberg K, Andersson NE. New chromogenic APC resistance assay with high discrimination between absence and presence of the factor V mutation G1691A. Thromb Haemost 73, 1364, abstract 1778 (1995).
281. Poort SW, Rosendaal FR, Reitsma PH, Bertina RM. A common genetic variation in the 3’-untranslated region of the prothrombin gene is associated with elevated plasma prothrombin levels and an increase in venous thrombosis. Blood 10, 3698-3703 (1996).
282. Lindoff C, Ingemarsson I, Martinsson G et al. Preeclampsia is associated with a reduced response to activated protein C. Am J Obstet Gynecol 176, 457-460 (1997).
283. Cofrancesco E, Cortellaro M, Corradi A et al. Coagulation activation markers in the prediction of venous thrombosis after elective hip surgery. Thromb Haemost 77, 267-269 (1997).
284. Laffan M, Manning R. The influence of factor VIII on measurement of activated protein C resistance. Blood Coag Fibrinol 7. 761-765 (1996).
285. Nicolaes G, Tans G, Thomassen C et al. Peptide bond cleavages and loss of functional activity during inactivation of factor Va and factor VaR506Q by activated protein C.J Biol Chem 270, 21158-21166 (1995).
286. Simioni P, Prandoni P, Lensing A et al. The risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism in patients with and Arg506 to Gln mutation in the gene for factor V (factor V Leiden). N Engl J Med 336, 399-403 (1997).
287. Rosing J, Hoekema L, Nicolaes G et al. Effects of protein S and factor Xa on peptide bond cleavages during inactivation of factor Va and factor VaR506Q by activated protein C. J Biol Chem 270, 27852-27858 (1995).